Gatsby, Contentful, and Netlify Walk Into a Bar

Dave Kensell

Static site generators like Gatsby are incredibly developer friendly and make super fast sites, but they’re almost completely inaccessible to non-developers. In this blog post I’ll show you how to change that.

CMS exist to give content creators like graphic designers, copywriters, social media managers, and the rest of the marketing team a way to quickly get content online themselves.

But most of them are designed to be all-in-one website solutions, like WordPress. Definitely not static.

So how do you marry a CMS to a static site generator?

Enter Contentful, a headless CMS. A headless CMS gives your non-devs a familiar interface for managing content that is then connected to your site generator by API. Contentful has a nice starter pack for Gatsby which we’ll get set up.

And then we’ll go even further and show you how content creators can build and deploy the site at the click of a button, using Netlify webhooks.

Recommended React and GraphQL course

Install Gatsby CLI

This post assumes you’re already familiar with Gatsby. If you’re not, you may want to visit first steps with Gatsby and then return.

First, if you don’t already have the gatsby-cli installed, do so:

$ yarn global add gatsby-cli

Create New Contentful-Starter

Now it’s time to create a new project using the Contentful starter pack.

A starter creates a ready-made Gatsby project with configuration, design elements, and placeholder content for a site.

$ gatsby new contentful-starter

A successful install delivers instructions on the next setup step for importing a content model and creating a config file ./.contentful.json".

Setup: connect your space

Enter your newly created project to follow the instructions:

$ cd contentful-starter
$ yarn run setup 

You’re going to be prompted to input your Space ID and API access tokens. So let’s go get those.

Go to Contentful and create an empty space. This is basically a content repository for your website (and wherever else you want that content to go). At the time of this writing, you can have two free spaces on the Basic tier.

Go to Settings > General Settings to get your Space ID and input it to the terminal.

Go to Settings > API Keys > Content Management tokens to generate your personal access token and input it to the terminal.

Switch over to the Content delivery / preview tokens tab within the same window. Press the Add API key button. Copy your delivery API token and input it to the terminal.

The setup should now run and write dev and prod .env config files for you, as well as import starter content and settings into your space.

Your local tree should look like this, 2 levels deep:

  .
  ├── LICENSE
  ├── README.md
  ├── app.json
  ├── bin
  │   ├── hello.js
  │   └── setup.js
  ├── contentful
  │   └── export.json
  ├── gatsby-config.js
  ├── gatsby-node.js
  ├── package.json
  ├── public
  │   ├── avenir-400.woff2
  │   ├── favicon.ico
  │   ├── index.html
  │   ├── page-data
  │   ├── robots.txt
  │   └── static
  ├── screenshot.jpg
  ├── setup.jpg
  ├── src
  │   ├── components
  │   ├── pages
  │   └── templates
  ├── static
  │   ├── avenir-400.woff2
  │   ├── favicon.ico
  │   └── robots.txt
  ├── static.json
  └── yarn.lock

Your Contentful users can now create and edit content in an uber familiar CMS interface with WYSIWYG.

Contentful starter wysiwyg

Local Dev

You can run the following command to preview the site on your localhost:

$ yarn run dev

View it in your browser at http://localhost:8000/.

And view GraphiQL, an in-browser IDE, to explore your site’s data and schema at http://localhost:8000/___graphql.

Contentful starter preview

Now you can edit and publish content via the Contentful CMS and see it reflected in your local preview.

Preview Published or Unpublished Changes Locally

By default, only content that is published via Contentful will be shown on your dev server.

That’s probably how you want it, assuming the content creator is the one who’s determining whether content is or isn’t ready, and you the developer simply want to make sure those changes haven’t broken the site.

But if you’re the content creator or for some other reason you’d like to preview unpublished content, i.e. pending changes or drafts, you need to make a couple changes to your dotenv settings.

Take a look at your gatsby-config.js, and you’ll see this:

require('dotenv').config({
  path: `.env.${process.env.NODE_ENV}`
})

const contentfulConfig = {
  spaceId: process.env.CONTENTFUL_SPACE_ID,
  accessToken: process.env.CONTENTFUL_ACCESS_TOKEN,
  host: process.env.CONTENTFUL_HOST
}

If you actually check your .env.development and .env.production files, you’ll see that CONTENTFUL_HOST isn’t defined. By default, it will pull from published content.

To change that, add:

CONTENTFUL_HOST='preview.contentful.com'

To your .env.development file. You also need to change your access token to use the Content Preview API - access token. Get that from within Contentful > Settings > API Keys.

Your .env.development file should now look something like:

CONTENTFUL_SPACE_ID='asdf1234'
CONTENTFUL_ACCESS_TOKEN='fasdfdafsfdsafdsa253523523f'
CONTENTFUL_HOST='preview.contentful.com'

Contentful & Gatsby Preview

Where it starts to get exciting is with the ability for Contentful users to see live preview changes. If you’re storing your source on GitHub, using Contentful and Gatsby allows you to take advantage of Gatsby Preview. At the time of this writing, it’s $50/mo for 1 site with a 14 day free trial.

In Gatsby’s words, Gatsby Preview provides a (shareable!) temporary URL for viewing changes immediately and in context — so you can make sure that new header plays nicely with the rest of the page before hitting “publish.”

Contentful has developed a sidebar preview tool using Gatsby Preview.

But we’ll chew on Gatsby Preview elsewhere.

Because we can go a step further and let content creators actually build and deploy.

Continuous Deployment with Netlify

Once you’ve got your site how you want it, you can build and deploy to whatever host you’d like. The starter pack is set up to use GitHub Pages, but we’re going to use Netlify instead. You’ll see why in a minute.

If you haven’t already, commit your changes and add your remote at GitHub:

$ git remote add origin <url>

Connect GitHub and Netlify

Go to Netlify and create a free account. If you already have one, select New site from Git. Choose GitHub as your source code host.

You’ll be prompted to connect the Netlify app at GitHub, or to adjust authorization settings if you’ve connected sites in the past. Do so, and then select your contentful-starter repository to link your site.

netlify build settings and env variables

Follow the instructions. Adjust gatsby build to yarn build in Basic build settings. It may not be necessary for you, but it solved a problem I ran into.

  • Build command: yarn build
  • Publish directory: public/

Press the Show Advanced button in order to define env variables. We need to put in our .env.production contentful info here.

CONTENTFUL_SPACE_ID=’your-space-id'
CONTENTFUL_ACCESS_TOKEN='your-access-token'

Now click the Deploy Site button.

That should work! When it’s done, you’ll get a URL you can use as-is or set up a custom domain.

From now on, any time you push code to master at your GitHub repo, Netlify will build and deploy your website.

But we’re not done yet.

Connect Contentful and Netlify

We can go a step further and cut you, the dev, out of the content team’s workflow altogether.

Because Netlify has a hook for Contentful to trigger updates whenever a change is published there.

install netlify app at contentful

Go to your Contentful account. Click Apps from the top nav, enable apps, then install the Netlify app and follow the instructions to connect your accounts.

To see how the connection has been made at Netlify, from the Netlify dashboard select Settings from the top menu and then Build & Deploy from the left nav. Scroll down to Build hooks and you’ll see the build hook URL. Something like this:

https://api.netlify.com/build_hooks/randomabc123

You can delete it at any time if you want to cut the connection.

netlify web hook url

Now back to Contentful.

Their idea is that you will have two different URLs, your production site and a preview website. But we’ll just stick with our single site.

The connection you created is an alpha feature that will add two new buttons next time someone is creating content: Build and Open Preview.

cms with build and deploy buttons

Open Preview just opens whatever URL has been set for it, which doesn’t do much for us. But the Build button will actually trigger a build and deploy at Netlify!

That’s right! Your content team can create and deploy content from a CMS WYSIWYG system to a static website without having to touch code or enter the terminal!

Note: Anyone who has access to your Contentful space will be able to trigger a build, so be judicious with access.

You now have several ways to deploy your site:

Contentful

  • Build button

Netlify

  • GitHub updates to trigger build
  • $ yarn build and upload the /public folder
  • Web interface inside your Netlify account
  • POST to your build_hook, like
$ curl -X POST -d {} https://api.netlify.com/build_hooks/abcdefgh123456789

starter site edited during demo

Feels Good

🥳 So who’s going to party harder? You, freed from constantly having to apply tedious updates, or the content creators who can finally update their site again?

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